Andrew Almeida, CFA

Andrew is a Chartered Financial Analyst and outsourced Chief Investment Officer to family offices, hedge funds, and start ups. His expertise includes investment analysis and selection across all asset classes. Most recently, his focus has been on uncovering value across the Web3 landscape and advising on new projects. During the 13+ years of his career, he's worked at financial firms including JPMorgan Chase, Advisors Asset Management, and City National Bank, where he served as Associate Portfolio Manager on $1.25 billion of multi-asset class portfolios.

Reviewed by Andrew

Jan 4, 2024

Negative P/E Ratio

The price-to-earnings (P/E) ratio is a valuation metric that looks at share price relative to EPS. A negative P/E ratio means that a stock is losing money.

Apr 21, 2023

Return on Equity (ROE)

Return on equity (ROE) is a financial ratio that is calculated by dividing net income by shareholders' equity. It is a commonly used measure of profitability.

Apr 20, 2023

Diluted Shares

Diluted shares occur when a company issues additional shares of stock, resulting in the current shares now representing a lower percentage of ownership.

Apr 4, 2023

Accounts Payable (AP)

Accounts payable are the short-term debts owed by a company to its creditors and suppliers for goods or services that have been received but not yet been paid for.

Mar 24, 2023

Industries and Sectors

Sectors and industries are used to sort and group segments of an economy. One is broader than the other, but the terms used depend on the classification system.

Mar 17, 2023

Preferred Stock

Preferred stock is a category of stock that comes with certain rights, which differ from those that accompany common stock. Here's how they compare.

Mar 10, 2023

Accounts Receivable (AR)

Accounts receivable, or AR, represent money owed to a company for goods and services it has provided to customers but has not yet received payment for.

Feb 27, 2023

Cash and Cash Equivalents

Cash and cash equivalents (CCE) are assets that are immediately available as cash, meaning they can be converted into cash within fewer than 90 days.

Feb 17, 2023

Convertible Securities

Convertible securities are financial instruments that can be exchanged for other types of tradable assets from the same issuer, typically shares of common stock.

Feb 8, 2023

Fiscal Year

A fiscal year is a 12-month period of financial reporting. Companies generally choose to use a fiscal year or calendar year based on the nature of the business.

Jan 30, 2023

Property, Plant, and Equipment (PP&E)

Property, plant, and equipment (PP&E) are a company’s physical assets that have a lifespan longer than one year and are not easily converted into cash.

Jan 27, 2023

Forward P/E Ratio

The forward price-to-earnings (P/E) ratio is a valuation metric that compares a stock’s share price to its forecasted earnings per share. Here is a complete guide.

Jan 17, 2023

Market-to-Book Ratio

The market-to-book ratio is a metric that compares the price of a stock to its book value. It tells you the price the market is putting on the company's assets.

Jan 13, 2023

Marketable Securities

Marketable securities are short-term assets that can be sold quickly and converted into cash. Here is an overview including examples and how they're used in formulas.

Jan 6, 2023

Intangible Assets

Intangible assets are the non-physical resources that a company owns. Here is an overview, examples, and information on how to value intangibles.

Jan 3, 2023

Effective Tax Rate

The effective tax rate is the percentage of income a company or individual pays in taxes. Here's how it compares to the corporate income and marginal tax rates.

Dec 30, 2022

Gross Margin

Gross margin measures the percentage of revenue a company retains after deducting the costs of producing the goods or services it sells. Here's how to calculate it.

Dec 27, 2022

Working Capital

Working capital is a measure of a company’s liquidity, specifically its short-term financial health and whether it has the cash on hand for normal business operations.

Dec 22, 2022

Net Profit Margin

Net profit margin is a profitability metric that shows net income as a percent of revenue. Here's a complete guide, including how it compares to gross profit margin.

Dec 20, 2022

Types of Costs in Accounting

In accounting, costs are categorized to help analyze how well a business is generating profits from revenue. Here are the different types and how they're used.

Dec 14, 2022

Shares Outstanding

Shares outstanding is a financial number that represents all the shares of a company’s stock that shareholders currently own. Here's how to find and use it.

Dec 12, 2022

Debt-to-Equity (D/E) Ratio

The debt-to-equity (D/E) ratio shows how much debt, relative to equity, a company is using to finance its operations. This guide includes the formula and examples.

Dec 9, 2022

Free Cash Flow per Share

Free cash flow shows how much cash a company has left after paying to run its core business and maintain its capital assets. FCF per share is this amount, per share.

Dec 7, 2022

Dividend Payout Ratio

The dividend payout ratio shows how much of a company’s net income goes to paying dividends. Here is a complete overview including how to calculate and use it.

Dec 5, 2022

Corporate Income Tax

Here is a comprehensive overview of U.S. corporate income tax, including federal and state rates, how it works, how to calculate it, and historical trends.

Dec 2, 2022

Operating Expenditure (OpEx)

Operating expenditure (OpEx) accounts for the day-to-day expenses of a business. Here's a complete guide, including the formula and how it compares to CapEx.

Nov 30, 2022

Cost of Revenue

Cost of revenue represents the total cost of making and delivering a service or product. It’s normally used for service companies in place of the cost of goods sold (COGS).

Nov 28, 2022

Pretax Income

Pretax income refers to total income before taxes are deducted. It's commonly known as income before taxes, pretax profit, or earnings before taxes.

Nov 23, 2022

Revenue Growth

Revenue growth is a term used to describe a company’s increase in revenue over a period of time, usually quarter-over-quarter or year-over-year.

Nov 16, 2022

Operating Income

Operating income is the profit left after paying for all expenses related to a company's core operations. It is a commonly used measure of profitability.

Nov 9, 2022

Trailing Twelve Months (TTM)

TTM is a financial term that stands for trailing twelve months. It represents a company's financial numbers over the past four quarters.

Nov 7, 2022

Cost of Goods Sold (COGS)

The Cost of Goods Sold (COGS) is the cost required to produce the goods a company sells. Here is a detailed definition, formula, uses, and downsides.

Nov 4, 2022

Earnings Per Share (EPS)

Earnings per share (EPS) is a commonly used number to describe a company's profitability. It represents the portion of earnings allocated to each share.

Nov 4, 2022

Earnings Before Interest and Taxes (EBIT)

Earnings Before Interest and Taxes (EBIT) is a measure of a company’s earnings. Here are the uses and limitations of EBIT, as well as how to calculate it.

Oct 31, 2022

Earnings Before Interest, Taxes, Depreciation, and Amortization (EBITDA)

Earnings Before Interest, Taxes, Depreciation, and Amortization (EBITDA) is a measure of a company’s earnings. Here's how to calculate and use EBITDA.